The International Energy Agency, in its 2018 report titled “The Future of Cooling”, stated that air conditioners in homes and offices are the fastest growing use of energy in buildings and will drive peak electricity demand, especially in tropical countries like Indonesia. The report also found that by 2050, around two third of the world’s households could have an air conditioner, with China, India and Indonesia accounting for half of all units.
Indonesia currently operates 223 million air conditioners. In 2016, the share of cooling in electricity system peak loads in Indonesia reached 15 percent. Without an efficient cooling scenario, this figure will increase up to 40 percent by 2050. In the long run, more efficient air conditioners can reduce the need for new power plants to meet this peak power demand. Energy efficient air conditioners will also contribute to curbing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions.
The Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources’ Directorate of Energy Conservation and The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Indonesia Chapter, with the support from USAID Indonesia Clean Energy Development II (ICED II), are looking to develop stronger energy efficiency standards for air conditioners. “Right now, ASEAN countries are focusing on harmonizing energy efficiency and technology. We (Indonesia) still lag behind other countries that have already implemented conservation and energy efficiency policies in industrial sector,” said Hariyanto, Director of Energy Conservation.
The cooling seasonal performance factor (CSPF) is a newer and more accurate indicator in energy efficiency, as specified in International Standards Organization (ISO) 16358-1. Many Southeast Asian countries started to adopt the ISO in recent years to become more energy efficient and commit to more sustainable use of energy. Indonesia is following suit in a move towards adopting ISO 16358-1.
USAID ICED II and ASHRAE Indonesia Chapter held a one-day discussion on energy efficiency standards for residential AC on March 19, 2019 to support the Directorate of Energy Conservation. The thirty participants – from the Directorate, cooling industry, business association, academics, testing laboratories, and government agencies – agreed to create a working group to implement CSPF and determine the minimum energy performance standard (MEPS) for residential AC. They also aim to develop CSPF calculation procedures and measures to estimate Indonesia’s energy consumption.
Indonesia’s Minister of Energy and Mineral Resources Regulation No. 57/2017 on MEPS for residential air conditioners adheres to the Indonesian National Standards (SNI) on AC. This regulation adopted ISO 5151, which uses a less-accurate energy efficiency ratio (EER) indicator than CSPF in measuring energy efficiency. The March 2019 discussion aimed to draft a new ministerial regulation on the implementation of CSPF as performance indicator and new MEPS for residential and light-commercial programs to reduce CO2 emissions.
Earlier in October 2018 and January 2019, the Directorate of Energy Conservation, USAID ICED II and ASHRAE Indonesia Chapter had also conducted a series of discussions and collected inputs from stakeholders to revise MEPS for split AC units. All parties then agreed to use CSPF as the energy performance indicator, because Indonesia’s MEPS are currently lower than other ASEAN countries and also lack monitoring and verification procedures.