Air conditioning can help improve people’s productivity and life quality especially those who lives in warm climates, according to the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP, 2017). In Indonesia, the demand of air conditioner (AC) is growing rapidly as the standard of living improves. The global AC stock is expected to increase from 660 million units in 2015 to more than 1.5 billion units by 2030. The situation has led to the rising emissions of Green House Gas (GHG), particularly CO2, as AC uses fossil fuel.
Policies to control energy and environmental impact of AC is urgently needed. In 2018, the Association of Southeast Asian Nation (ASEAN) held the first meeting in Jakarta to integrate energy efficiency into the ASEAN Mutual Recognition Agreements (MRA) for electrical and electronic equipment (ASEAN EE MRA). Some of the components of the regional policy of Minimum Energy Performance Standards (MEPS) are harmonization of evaluation methods and incorporation of Cooling Seasonal Performance factor (CSPF) using ISO 16358-1 by 2020.
In ASEAN, the potential for electricity savings from the harmonization of energy efficiency performance standards for AC is estimated to be up to 5,374 GWh per year. The GHG emissions, based on the energy mix of the countries in ASEAN, could be reduced to up to 8.965 million tons of CO2 per year (UNEP, 2010)
Many countries have been using the International Organization Standardization (ISO) standard of ISO 5151 as a reference test to measure air conditioner’s cooling capacity and efficiency. The newer standard, ISO 16358-1, allows for fixed speed and inverter air conditioners to be rated under the same metric and product category, and provides flexibility in the adoption of a country’s specific temperature bin.
In 2017, Indonesia’s Minister of Energy and Mineral Resources issued Ministerial Regulation No. 57/2017 on MEPS for residential air conditioners that adheres to the Indonesian National Standards (SNI) on AC. This regulation adopted ISO 5151 that uses less accurate energy efficiency ratio (EER) as the indicator in measuring energy efficiency.
Following the ASEAN MRA, the government of Indonesia has revised the SNI for performance efficiency of AC split type by adopting SNI ISO 16538-1 and replaced EER with CSPF. CSPF is a newer and more accurate indicator in energy efficiency, as specified in ISO 16358-1. Many Southeast Asian countries started to adopt the ISO in recent years to become more energy efficient country that will contribute to more sustainable use of energy in the long run. Indonesia follows suit by moving towards the adoption of ISO 16358-1.
In 2018 and early 2019, Directorate of Energy Conservation at the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, collaborated with USAID Indonesia Clean Energy Development (ICED) II and The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Indonesia chapter to hold a focus group discussion on AC Split MEPS revision. The discussion aimed to draft a new ministerial regulation on the implementation of CSPF as performance indicator and new MEPS for residential and light commercial programs. The new regulation is expected to contribute to energy saving and CO2 emission reduction in Indonesia.